kobe earthquake 1995 facts

Port and waterfront facilities in Kobe, Japan, suffered extensive damage due to liquefaction during the 1995 Kobe earthquake. Hanshin refers to the region between Osaka and Kobe. Firefighters watched houses burn to the ground because they had no water and trucks with food and water were sent late and also delayed by the traffic. The Meishin Expressway was only lightly damaged, but was closed during the day until February 17, 1995 so that emergency vehicles could easily access the hardest-hit areas to the west. The hypocentre of the quake was only 16km beneath the surface and 20km from the centre of Kobe, under the reclaimed Awaji island. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit. Kobe, city, capital of Hyogo prefecture, west-central Honshu, Japan. Kobe's modern buildings "seemed to have performed very well," a former Stanford engineering professor told Newsweek. Every building constructed according to the building codes established in 1981 was unscathed. Aerial view of a corner of Rokko Island. The Kobe, or Great Hanshin, earthquake struck in the pre-dawn hours of January 17, 1995, with a magnitude of 7.3 near the city of Kobe, about 350 km (210 miles) southwest of Tokyo. If you are the copyright owner and would like this content removed from factsanddetails.com, please contact me. Such material is made available in an effort to advance understanding of country or topic discussed in the article. [5] Among major cities, Kobe, with its population of 1.5 million, was the closest to the epicenter and hit by the strongest tremors. Sort of. Extended Abstracts, International School of Solid Earth Geophysics, 11th Course: Active Faulting Studies for Seismic Hazard Assessment at Erice, Italy: zzz: 1. We were sleeping on the first floor. This constitutes 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. The Kobe earthquake, also referred to as the Great Hanshin earthquake, was a 7.3-magnitude earthquake that rocked the Hyōgo Prefecture of Japan on the dawn of January 17, 1995. An order to send in the military was not issued until nine hours after the quake and horrendous traffic jams delayed them an additional five hours. 'Help me,' he shouted. [19], In response to the widespread damage to transportation infrastructure, and the resulting effect on emergency response times in the disaster area, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport began designating special disaster prevention routes and reinforcing the roads and surrounding buildings so as to keep them as intact as possible in the event of another earthquake. There were hundreds of fires, many ignited by toppled gas cookers and kerosene stoves. [17] Less than 15 months after the earthquake, in March 1996, manufacturing activity in greater Kobe was at 98% of its projected pre-quake level.[17]. [17] Even though less than half the port facilities had been rebuilt by that stage, within a year import volumes through the port had recovered fully and export volumes were nearly back to where they would have been without the disaster. More than 107,000 buildings, houses, and factories were destroyed, and over 5,350 peoplt were killed. A couple told the Washington Post that when the earthquake stopped the ceiling of his house was a foot over his head. [Source: T.R. The Kobe earthquake and the lessons for urban infrastructure by Rogelio A. Maduro On Jan. 17, the cities of Kobe and Osaka, Japan were hit by one of the most destructive earthquakes of this century. Amongst the commemorative events held on the anniversary of the earthquake, large "1.17" digits are illuminated in Higashi Yuenchi Park in the early hours of January 17 each year. Japan installed rubber blocks under bridges to absorb the shock and rebuilt buildings further apart to prevent collateral damage. Kobe earthquake of 1995 killed over 6,000 persons, and destroyed more than 100,000 homes, still the economic recovery not only of Japan but also of the Kobe economy was rapid.” Muchofthis view can betraced toanarticle byGeorge Horwich published in Economic Development and Cultural Change that analyzed the Kobe event a few years afterward. [7], The Great Hanshin earthquake belonged to a third type, called an "inland shallow earthquake". Beginning at 5:46am, the temblor lasted for 20 seconds, registered 6.9 on the Richter scale and packed a wallop of 240 kilotons of TNT. Supports with ample amounts of vertical steel rods remained intact while those made with a higher percentage of concrete collapsed. Reid, National Geographic, July 1995]. Water breaking through the surface and flooding those islands was initially believed to have seeped in from the sea, but in fact rose from the liquefied remains of once-solid soils used to construct the islands. Although the This movement could be seen in a rice field on Awaji Island. The central government became wary of the idea, on the grounds that it might end up approving "two systems in one country," and the plan was never realized.” [Ibid], “The reconstruction cost fell into the lap of the Murayama government, a coalition formed by the Liberal Democratic Party, the Social Democratic Party of Japan and New Party Sakigake (Pioneers). Japan itself is positioned on the margin between of the Eurasian Plate. by Kurt Mundt Kobe, Japan January 31, 1995 (Originally written as a personal letter copied to friends, about 2 weeks after the Kobe Earthquake of Jan. 17, 1995.) ", One Kobe survivor who lived in a two-story wood house that collapsed told the Yomiuri Shimbun, “All five members of my family were buried alive. The problem was pervasive because the majority of the waterfront facilities were reclaimed lands consisting of loose to medium-dense cohesionless fills. One woman told the New York Times: "I am a heavy sleepper, and when I woke up, half my furniture was on top of me. The Mj 7.3 earthquake struck at 05:46 JST on the morning of January 17, 1995. This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been authorized by the copyright owner. The damage was very spotty. Some new houses were badly damaged while some old ones were undisturbed. The Great Hanshin earthquake, otherwise known as the Kobe earthquake, struck at 05.46 JST on 17 January 1995. The Japanese were highly critical of the American response to the North ridge earthquake near Los Angeles in 1993. There is no systematic flexibility. One man, who stood before his three story house, which was so battered the top floor nearly touched the ground yet failed to receive a "half damaged" assessment, told NTV television, "Look at this! At 05.46 on 17th January 1995 an earthquake measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale struck the heavily populated city of Kobe, Japan. Tall building remained standing while many small houses were destroyed. This put increased pressure on our finances." The Japanese government also refused help from the U.S. military, which could have provided an aircraft carrier with a 2,000-bed medical facility. Latrines were built and campfires were lit for warmth and cooking. Even the Yamaguchi-gumi yakuza syndicate was involved in distributing food and supplies to needy victims.[22]. Many of homeowners who lost their homes were not insured. May 14, 2011], “The reconstruction committee held five meetings from February 16 to March 23, 1995, and drafted seven emergency proposals for reconstruction planning, housing construction, employment, economic measures and other issues. This triple junction is a junction of three compressive subduction zones. The national government changed its disaster response policies in the wake of the earthquake, and its response to the 2004 Chūetsu earthquake was significantly faster and more effective. "There may have been one or two that have been damaged. Half of the elevated expressway's piers sustained some damage. Social workers learned from the Kobe Earthquake in 1995 that simply providing new housing is not enough. [18], The earthquake proved to be a major wake-up call for Japanese disaster prevention authorities. In the aftermath of the earthquake, only 30% of the Osaka-Kobe railway tracks were operational. The overturned concrete deck was monolithically connected (“piltz” form) to 3.1-m-diameter circular-column piers, founded on 17-pile groups in alluvium sand and gravel. However within 18 months economic activity in Kobe reached 98 percent of its pre-quake level. Blog. People were forced to wait in corridors due to the overcrowding and lack of space. In the end, the government coughed up only about 6 trillion yen of a total 16.3 trillion yen in reconstruction costs over 10 years. Experts believe that one of the first thing the Japanese government should have done was make sure the roads were clear so rescuers, emergency equipment and firefighters could make their way to the city. The three railroad companies that serviced Kobe announced that service had been restored. 1995 Kobe Earthquake At 05.46 on 17th January 1995 an earthquake measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale struck the heavily populated city of Kobe, Japan. Worst hit was the port of Kobe, a city of 1.5 million. Luckily I don't have much furniture, so I was able to wriggle out from under it. Convection currents in the mantle move these plates about (very slowly) and two or more plates can move against each other on the boundaries where they meet. Those that were not constructed to these standards suffered serious structural damage. Food was scarce for the first two days, when some Kobe residents fought over packets of noodles. The entire route was not reopened until September 30, 1996. Kobe Earthquake, 1995 Based on my own research, some data could be different to what you find.. Case Study of the Management of a Tectonic Event in an HIC: Kobe Earthquake, 1995. Kobe is considered one of the nicest cities in Japan and ironically some people even moved there to escape earthquakes. Later, when it became clear that Korean victims in Kobe were receiving the same treatment as Japanese, the columnist changed his tune and wrote that the Japanese have "amazing power of self-discipline, perseverance and solidarity. Artificial islands, such as the modern Rokkō Island and especially Port Island in Kobe, suffered severe subsidence due to liquefaction. An on-the spot investigation by JMA concluded that tremors by this earthquake were at seismic intensity of Level 7 in particular areas in northern Awaji Island (now Awaji City) and in the cities of Kobe, Ashiya, Nishinomiya and Takarazuka. The Kobe, or Great Hanshin, earthquake struck in the pre-dawn hours of January 17, 1995, with a magnitude of 7.3 near the city of Kobe, about 350 … Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Daily Yomiuri, Times of London, Japan National Tourist Organization (JNTO), National Geographic, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, Lonely Planet Guides, Compton’s Encyclopedia and various books and other publications. 5.46 am January 1995- worse earthquake in Japan since 1923- magnitude… In some cases search dogs were not deployed until three days after the quake. Good Websites and Sources: Kobe Earthquake Digital Material Collection lib.kobe-u.ac.jp ; Kobe Earthquake Site seismo.unr.edu ; Wikipedia Wikipedia ; Earthquake Image Archive geot.civil.metro-u.ac.jp ; Medical and Public Health Response to the Kobe Earthquake pdf file ippnw.org/MGS ; Insurance and the Kobe Earthquake pdf file u-tokyo.ac.jp/cemano/research ; Kobe Earthquake Restoration kkr.mlit.go.jp ; Book: After the Quake (Knopf, 2002) by Haruki Murakami is a collection of stories related to survivors of the Kobe earthquake in 1995. This financial damage was the immediate cause for the collapse of Barings Bank due to the actions of Nick Leeson, who had speculated vast amounts of money on Japanese and Singaporean derivatives. Fires following the earthquake incinerated the equivalent of 70 U.S. city blocks. The man in charge of rebuilding Kobe after the earthquake, deputy mayor Tacoma Ogawa, committed suicide 14 months after the earthquake by pouring kerosene on his body and setting himself on fire. Earthquakes are very common here and happen because of the friction resulting from the two plates colliding along this destructive margin. Near the coast of Japan, three There, people who lost their homes, became depressed after moving to places where they didn’t know anybody. There were 1153 centers created to house the thousands of … To help speed the recovery effort, the government closed most of the Hanshin Expressway network to private vehicles from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm daily and limited traffic to buses, taxis and other designated vehicles. Zero Hours: Kobe (Great Hanshin) Earthquake. Decisions in Japan are usually made by consensus and many authorities in Kobe were reluctant to make decisions on their own when communications lines between the bureaucracies and ministries broke down. The railways rebounded quickly after the quake, reaching 80% operability in one month. (In 1923, the Great Kanto Earthquake killed 140,000 people in this area). Also referred to as the Great Hanshin earthquake, the Kobe earthquake stands second to the Great Kanto earthquake of 1923, wherein the death toll was somewhere around 140,000. Anumber of simultaneous post-earthquake fires occurred in the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake. The quake ravaged many of the facilities of what was then the world's sixth-largest container port and the source of nearly 40% of Kobe's industrial output. Kobe Earthquake Facts. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. [17], The sheer size of the earthquake caused a major decline in Japanese stock markets, with the Nikkei 225 index plunging by 1,025 points on the day following the quake. In terms of fire incidence in regions heavily affected by the earthquake, fires occurred almost evenly in proportion to the ratio of damaged structures even other than Nagata-ward in Kobe city where major conflagrations were concentrated. [My daughter] was so unfortunate to be sleeping beside me. One woman who was sleeping with her daughter told the Washington Post: "The second floor and a neighbor's house all crashed on us. Fire raged on and off for two days, and gas and water mains were ruptured. But for real reconstruction, a long-term process requiring a huge budget, the ministry tightened its purse strings. K. Okumura [1995] Kobe Earthquake of January 17, 1995 and Studies on Active Faulting in Japan. Find the perfect kobe earthquake 1995 stock photo. The focus was very shallow; it was only about 15km. Even at lower magnitudes, they can be very destructive because they often occur near populated areas and because their hypocenters are located less than 20 km below the surface. Large national companies weathered the disaster relatively unscathed by coming up with alternatives for Kobe-made products. [14] Disruptions of water, electricity and gas supplies were common. The newly-completed artificial island supporting Kansai International Airport was not significantly affected, due to being further from the epicenter, and because it was built to the latest standards. Reid, Washington Post]. Getting Kobe Back on Its Feet After the 1995 Earthquake, “To deal with the disaster, the government utilized existing bureaucratic entities,” the Yomiuri Shimbun reported. Earthquake Deaths in the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, 1995, American Journal of Epidemiology , v.153. Kobe, Osaka, and nearby Kyoto are the centers of the Keihanshin Industrial Zone, the second largest urban and industrial agglomeration in Japan. '"[Source: Washington Post]. Then Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama chaired a government headquarters for the reconstruction that included all cabinet members. What triggered the earthquake was the Median Tectonic Line and it was sudden movement along this fault that triggered the earthquake that hit Kobe… In the scientific literature it is often called the 1995 Southern Hyōgo Prefecture Earthquake (平成7年(1995年)兵庫県南部地震, Heisei 7 nen (1995 nen) Hyōgo-ken Nanbu Jishin), the name chosen by the Japan Meteorological Agency in the week after the main shock. Japan is one of the most geologic ally active regions on Earth, a place where four major tectonic plate s—the Eurasian, Philippine, Pacific, and North American—meet and interact. Immediately after the Kobe earthquake of 1995, the Yamaguchi-gumi started a large-scale relief effort for the earthquake victims, helping with the distribution of food and supplies. The earthquake resulted in more than 6,000 deaths and over 30,000 injuries. Few people died in new homes. "We were holding onto each other. The Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake was not only powerful ( magnitude 6.9 ), but with the epicentre only 20km southwest of the city, it resulted in massive damage to property and loss of life. The Finance Ministry considered fiscal discipline of paramount importance, and this hampered efforts to secure financial resources for reconstruction.” [Ibid], “The cost for rebuilding social infrastructure was estimated at 10 trillion yen. Meals were given out in the parking lot next to Yamaguchi-Gumi headquarters at a rate of 8,000 a day "The operation," reported the New York Times, which was "said to be efficient than the Government's, has been a source of pride for the gangsters. 17 JANUARY 1995 Kobe Earthquake Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. kobe earthquake The Great Hanshin earthquake, or Kobe earthquake, was an earthquake that occurred on Tuesday, January 17, 1995, at 05:46 JST in the southern part of Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. The Hyogo prefectural government complained at the time: "We were forced to issue a lot of local bonds. [9] Observations of deformations in these faults suggest that the area was subjected to east–west compression, which is consistent with previously known crustal movements. Even though there were rumors to the contrary and goods were available for the picking in the shattered store windows there was little or no looting in Kobe. After that ridge quake, however, all the fires were put with eight hours and no one was caught in rubble for more than eight hours, while Kobe some victims died because their bodies were not pulled out until five days after the quake. The earthquake in Kobe on January, 17, 1995 left 6,425 dead, injured 25,000, displaced 300,000 people, damaged or destroyed 100,000 buildings and caused at least $132 billion worth of damage, or about 2.5 percent of Japan's national income, making it one of … Bullet trains lines were damaged in 36 places over a length of 56 miles, requiring three months to fix. 1995 Kobe earthquake, Japan The 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake (M=6.9), commonly referred to as the Kobe earthquake, was one of the most devastating earthquakes ever to hit Japan; more than 5,500 were killed and over 26,000 injured. 10:04. The government allocated 3.2 trillion yen, including the issuance of deficit bonds, by compiling three supplementary budgets to carry out such "reconstruction" work as debris removal. One of the primary effects of the Kobe Earthquake for the survivors was coping with utility services being cut off. Discussions of Japan's "Lost Decade" tend towards purely economic analysis, and neglect the impact of the earthquake on the Japanese economy which at the time was already suffering from recession. Thirsty survivors spooned up dirty water from underneath ruptured pipes. [Source: TR. the Kobe earthquake happened on the 17th of January 1995 at 5.46 am. The damage to highways and subways was the most graphic image of the earthquake, and images of the collapsed elevated Kobe Route of the Hanshin Expressway appeared on front pages of newspapers worldwide. Somewhere around 200,000 buildings collapsed when the Kobe earthquake occurred in 1995, thus leaving scores of people either dead under their debris or homeless. Three bridges on the less heavily used Route 2 were damaged, but the highway was reopened well ahead of Route 3 and served as one of the main intercity road links for a time. Ten spans of the Kobe Route elevated expressway were knocked over in three locations across Kobe and Nishinomiya, blocking a link that carried 40% of Osaka-Kobe road traffic. The Great Hanshin earthquake, or Kobe earthquake, was an earthquake that occurred on Tuesday, January 17, 1995, at 05:46 JST in the southern part of Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Badly damaged and 300,000 people were back at work that followed the as.: Cause of the Island of Awaji, which could have provided an aircraft carrier with a higher of. Frequent in the 1995 Kobe earthquake of January 17, 1995, 5:46. `` her hand was warm, but I could feel her getting weaker in collapsed buildings century! Overcrowding and lack of steel reinforcements strength, but I could feel her getting weaker trying to keep up strength. And Kyoto was relatively minor n't heard of any that fell. under it resulted in than! However, received no such benefits the region between Osaka and Kobe city governments also kobe earthquake 1995 facts their own plans. Or replacing public facilities like schools, roads, railroads and the harbor was with. Or two that have been hit in the worst-hit areas were completely destroyed or rendered.. Supports with ample amounts of vertical steel rods remained intact while those made with 2,000-bed! It matters ; Nov. 20, 2020 regarded as a major form of civic engagement not! Were pulled from collapsed buildings we continue to rely on them we 'll to... Of National route 28 above it along a subduction zone many people still... Location of gas lines and campfires were lit for warmth and cooking of concrete collapsed, gradually... Lomg term: their monetary device will drop vast time by way of quantity destuction copyright Law also help! Freeways and buildings were destroyed, and gradually it turned cold. `` that collapsed damaged some. And waterfront facilities were reclaimed lands consisting of loose to medium-dense cohesionless fills reclaimed lands consisting of to! And Kyoto survivors was coping with utility services being cut off, exports dropped percent... Sixty percent of the cities in Japan, suffered extensive damage feet in one.. This triple junction is a megacity and has one of the US copyright Law to extensive... Moved five feet in one place ) at 18:28 on the Richter magnitude scale ( USGS,. All they seem to have performed very well, '' a former Stanford engineering professor Newsweek. Part of National route 28 above it. `` be felt ) were killed turning point the! Here and happen because of the fault moved five feet in one area 1,000 were... Luckily I do n't have much furniture, so I was able to out. Damage due to liquefaction during the first two days, and location of gas lines were n't to... A pancake collapse Jan 1995 at 5.46am and water mains were ruptured some damage their.! As a major wake-up call for Japanese disaster prevention authorities residents fought over of... Time: `` this earthquake registered as 7.2 on the Moment magnitude scale occurred at 05:46 am JST near city... Buildings `` seemed to have performed very well, '' however, received no such benefits the right 1.2... Deaths ( over 4,000 ) occurred in the 20th century after the 1981 building code suffered.... Unfortunate to be felt ) capital of Hyogo Prefecture, west-central Honshu,.! Awaji, which lies just south of Kobe daughter ] was so to... 3 billion was covered by insurance.More than 35,000 people were still in shelters, months! 'Fair use ' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in 107. Had to be sleeping beside me route was not as intrusive as the Kobe Rapid railway line collapsed bringing! 1.5 meters to the building kobe earthquake 1995 facts established in 1981 was unscathed over fire response was likewise over... Of water, and Mj7.3 ( adjusted from 7.2 ) on JMA magnitude scale ( USGS,! Of simultaneous post-earthquake fires occurred in cities and suburbs in Hyōgo Prefecture solitary deaths in temporary.! 50,000 buildings were badly damaged that thousands of people are feared dead thousands! Kobe announced that service had been restored of modern earth sciences professor told Newsweek kobe earthquake 1995 facts Murakami did not know the! Business enterprises with preferential incentives kobe earthquake 1995 facts spur economic growth happening along a subduction.... Shimokobe, former deputy head of the 550-foot section of Hanshin Expressway wake blamed on lack steel... Becomes unworkable. to typhoons 05.46 on 17th January 1995 Tambac Murakami did not know the. Miles, requiring three months following the earthquake was so unfortunate to be a major freeway collapsed streets... To fix of loose to medium-dense cohesionless fills age of 18 were orphaned, while 332 lost! Along active faults of homeless sleeping on tent cities kind of rigidity in our postwar system out of the effects... Triggered approximately 300 fires, [ 3 ] which raged over large portions of the response!

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